NYAYA PHILOSOPHY PART 3 is continuaiton of previous NYAYA PHILOSOPHY PART 2 https://theobscuredratio.com/nyaya-philosophy-part-2-the-obscured-ratio/
4) PRAYOJANA – MOTIVE
Purpose serves as the motive behind all actions. A wise person never indulges in purpose-less action. It is the purpose or the motive which determines whether an act is morally right or wrong. The act by itself is neutral.
A seeker should always be examining and reflecting upon his motives.
5) DRISHTANTA-A CORROBORATIVE INSTANCE
Everybody accepts the general proposition that if there are clouds it will rain. This can be used as an example to explain the meaning of cause and effect. This helps because the journey is from the known to the unknown.
6) SIDDHANTA – A DEMONSTRATIVE TRUTH
Siddhanta is a conclusion that is recognized as being logically correct by a certain school of philosophy. There are 4 kinds of Sidhanata-
- Commonly accepted truth -The Tenet or a rule which is not opposed by any school of philosophy. Ex- 5 senses
- Peculiar truth – That Tenet which is accepted by similar schools but rejected by the opposing schools. Ex- Monotheism vs Polytheism.
- Consequential truth – Tenet which if accepted leads to the acceptance of another tenet.
- Implied truth – Those Tenets which is not explicitly declared but logically follows from an examination.
7) AVAYAVA – FACTORS OF REASONING
Begin with a PROPOSITION(PARTIJNA), state a REASON(HETU), SITE AN EXAMPLE(UDAHARANA), APPLY THAT PRINCIPLE IN REAL WORLD – APPLICATION ( UPANAYA), once applied reached to a CONCLUSION ( NIGAMA).
PROPOSITION – The statement of the thing to be proved.
HETU – Argument used to prove a proposition.
USAHARANA – A generally accepted instance of a thing.
APPLICATION – comparing with the current situation.
CONCLUSION – Convergence of the 4 previous steps towards the same judgment.
3 Parts of an Inference-
The major term is Sadhya.
The minor term is Paksha.
The middle term is Hetu or Linga.
Later philosophers have 5 additional components –
INQUIRY(JIGNYASA)- INVESTIGATION ON THE PROPOSITION.
DOUBT- QUESTIONING THE REASONING OF THE PROPOSITION.
CAPACITY(SATYAPRAPTI)- SEARCHING OTHER CASES
PURPOSE( PRAYOJANA)- WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF KNOWING
REMOVAL OF ALL DOUBTS(SAMSAYA VYUDASA)
The function of a proposition is to establish a connection between substance and attribute. The function of reason is to demonstrate that the attribute is an integral part of the substance. The function of the example is to show that the 2 attributes are related to the same sub-stratum. The example can be affirmative or negative. A negative example is a familiar instance that is known not to have the property that is established. Ex- The unborn never dies. The function of the application is to demonstrate that the attribute coexists with the similar attribute of a similar substance. The function of a conclusion is to exclude or contradictory conclusions against the proposition.
THERE IS FIRE ON THE HILL BECAUSE THERE IS SMOKE AND WHERE THERE IS SMOKE THERE IS FIRE.
Logical grounds for inferences –
- the state of pervasive – It implies both that which pervades and that which is pervaded. God exists in all of us – Vyapti= God and Us.
In the inference of fire and smoke. Smoke is pervaded and fire is the pervader. However, thus reverse that is whenever there is fire there is smoke is not correct. It is possible to have fire without smoke. There are some cases where pervader and pervaded co-exists permanently. This is called concomitance. There are two types of concomitance.
NON EQUIVALENT- In variable concomitance between two unequal entities. One can be inferred from other but not the other way around. Fire can be inferred from the smoke but smoke can not be inferred from fire.
EQUIVALENT – In variable concomitance between two co-existent term
In which either of them can be inferred from other.
The only way to establish concomitance is by repetitive observation. The Nyaya method of Inference uses Inductive reasoning. On the grounds of universally accepted truth. Concomitance is established through the perception of classes( smanya Lakshana). The universal truth falls within the range of Vyapti.
8) HETVA BHASHA- FALLACIOUS REASONING
- SAVYAVICHARA- THE IRREGULAR MIDDLE, AMBIGUOUS
- VIRUDDHA- SELF CONTRADICTORY
- SATPRATIPAKSHA- INCONCLUSIVE
- ASSIDHA- UNPROVED
- BODHITA- ANACHRONISM
THE IRREGULAR MIDDLE
ALL BEINGS WHO LIVE IN THE HIMALAYAS ARE SAINTS
TIGERS LIVE IN THE HIMALAYAS
THEREFORE TIGERS ARE SAINTS
Major term- saints
Middle term- Himalayan beings
Minor term- tigers
Conclusion- wrong and ambiguous
Reason- Improper concomitance between major term and middle- many varieties of beings live in the Himalayas. Saint is just one. The property of saintliness is not concomitance to Himalaya beings and vice versa.
SOUND IS ETERNAL BECAUSE IT IS PRODUCED
EVERYTHING THAT IS PRODUCED IS IMPERMANENT
THE BODY IS NON ETERNAL BECAUSE IT DOES NOT POSSESS THE ATTRIBUTE OF ETERNALITY
ALL HINDUS ARE VEGETARIAN BECAUSE OF ALL BELIEF IN THE DOCTRINE OF AHIMSA.
9) TARKA- HYPOTHETICAL REASON
A method of attaining knowledge of the truth by comparing and then gradually eliminating and competing for supposition or contrary ideas shown to be absurd.
10) NIRNAYA- DIALECTIC
Form of dialogue between two people who may hold different views and yet wish to establish the truth by seeking agreement from one another. This is different from a debate because in a debate a person tries to prove another person is wrong.
EXAMINE THE OPPOSITE- PURVAPAKSHA
APPLICATION OF LOGIC
DETERMINATION OF THE CONTROVERSY
NIRNAYA- ASCERTAINMENT OF THE TRUTH
Ascertainment is unnecessary in the case of direct perception or verbal testimony of trustworthy authority. Caution needs to be exercised that endless questioning for the sake of the questioning will not result in furthering knowledge.
11) VADA- DISCUSSION
Purpose is to arrive at the truth. In vada, it is not essential to establish one’s own thesis. It only needs to be submitted for examination. Any method of logic is acceptable.
A vigorous verbal argument aimed at gaining victory and not at pursuing the right knowledge. This usually takes the form of attacking the opponent s character rather than his testimony and his thesis. ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM.
Attacking the opposite side, disturb the speaker by offering objections.
14) CHALA- CASUISTRY
Opposition is offered by taking an alternate meaning of one of the words in the proposition. There are 3 ways-
- VAACHAS-PLAY UPON WORDS
- SAMANYAS- GENERALISATION
- UPACHARAS- METAPHOR
15) JATI- FUTILE REJOINDER
A reply is said to be futile if it does not take into consideration a universal connection between the major term and the middle term.
There are 24 kinds of futility.
16) NIGRAHA STAHANA- GROUND FOR DEFEAT FOR CRUNCHERS
A situation in which one either misunderstands or doesn’t understand at all. It is advised that the moment the other demonstrates the ignorance or misunderstanding of the subject under discussion, the discussion should be stopped. There are 22 occasions of disagreements principles.
NYAYA PHILOSOPHY PART3