This article(NYAYA PHILOSOPHY PART-2) is a continuation of the previous NYAYA PHILOSOPHY article.(https://theobscuredratio.com/nyaya-philosophy-the-obscured-ratio/)
16 divisions of Nyaya Philosophy –
1.Pramana- The valid sources of knowledge
Valid knowledge is that which reveals a thing as it is and is applicable to daily life.
For a VALID KNOWLEDGE– THE STATEMENT SHOULD BE
COHERENCE– LOGICAL AND CONSISTENT
CORRESPOND– TO THE ACTUAL NATURE OF THE OBJECT AS IT IS
CONSEQUENCE/UTILITY– PRACTICAL APPLICATION AND UTILITY
THERE ARE 4 PRAMANAS –
1. PRATYAKSHA– SENSE PERCEPTION-
Savikalpa – Concrete and specific.
Nirvikalpa – Abstract and nonspecific- snake and rope seems similar from distance.
2. ANUMANA– INFERENCE –
The knowledge is derived from the prior perception. It is based on a well-known and observed connection between – CAUSE AND EFFECT.
Purvavat– a priori
Seswat– a posteriori
Samanyato drishta– commonly seen- knowledge of one thing. derived from the perception of the another and is commonly seen
3. UPAMANA – ANALOGY- Knowledge of a thing that is derived from its similarity to something else which is already well known.
4. SHABDA– VERBAL TESTIMONY- The insertive assertion of a reliable person(AOTA). That is one who possesses the knowledge and truth. So the reliable APTA must be someone who is
- free from prejudice and bias.
- who has no self-interest in the outcome of the information?
- recognized by other authorities as trustworthy.
Perception is chiefly concerned with the present. Inference deals with the past, present, and future. The analogy is an instrument of perception. That enables us to know a named object. Verbal testimony reveals knowledge about things that we can not know about ourselves.
According to Nyaya, there are 4 additional means but not independent-
Non-existence– existence because of the absence of contradiction.
Sambhava– assumes the existence of one thing from another thing.
Aitiha– knowledge which is received without any verification.
2.PRAMEYA– ABOUT WHAT THINGS WE SHOULD KNOW ABOUT
A.ATMANA- THE SELF
According to Nyaya philosophy there are six factors that indicate the presence of the self or atman. These are-
- GYANA- KNOWLEDGE
- RAGA- ATTRACTION
- SUKHA- PLEASURE
- PRAYATNA- EFFORT
- DVAISHYA- AVERSION
- DUKHA- SORROW
These experiences are common to all beings. There is a subject that experiences all these. That subject is the self or the ATMAN. ATMAN is an intangible reality. It is self-evident. It can not be apprehended through the senses. It is distinct from body and mind. Its existence is established by ANUMANA- Inference.
B.SHARIRA- THE BODY
The body is that which is the locus of the motion of the senses and their effects of pleasure and pain exist. Body is the field of experiences. It strives to attain what is pleasurable . It avoid what is unpleasurable.
- THE PHYSICAL BODY
- THE BRAIN
- CHAKSHU- VISION
- TWAK- TOUCH
- SHROUT- HEARING
- RASA- FLAVOUR
- ROOPA- COLOR AND SHAPE
- SPARSHA- SENSATION
- SHABDA- SOUND
The sense and their objects provide 5 varieties of perception. They give rise to special kinds of knowledge according to the object that they reveal. There are 6 fields of the senses-
- EARTH- PRITHVI
- WATER- UP
- LIGHT- TEJAS
- AIR- VAAU
- DIMENSION- DIG
- MIND – MANAS
The substance is defined as the material cause and is the substratum of all qualities.
All the substances mentioned have the qualities. There are 24 qualities.
- SPACE AND TIME
- MERIT AND DEMERIT
- UPWARD AND DOWNWARD
- CONTRACTING AND EXPANDING
- All the known objects although different from one another because the gunas are still substances. Therefore substance is the higher generality. But these objects can be further divided into classes. Each class is a lower generality.
- Matter is composed of atoms. Each atom is a unit. There is an infinite no. of individual units.
- This category refers to the intimate relation that exists between dravya and gunas, between atoms and their compounds, between the whole and its parts, between substance and its modification.
Some teachers of Nyaya include a 7 category that is ABHAVA(NON-EXISTENCE).
KSHETRAJANA- PERSON WHO HAS KNOWLEDGE OF KSHETRA.
This is the ability to form ideas and notions, the ability to discern, the ability to retain conception, ability to judge, comprehend and understand the meaning of the right knowledge.
The capacity for reflection, inference, testimony, doubt, memory, desire, and feeling of pleasure and pain. The intellect seeks external knowledge whereas the manas seeks internal knowledge.
This is what sets the mind-body and voice in motion either for good or bad.
TRISHNA(CRAVING) – is due to AGYANA(FALSE KNOWLEDGE)- KARMA KANDA- BANDHANA (BONDAGE TO SAMSARA)
8.DOSHA- DISTORTED VIEW– and their MANIFESTATION
DVAISHA- AVERSION–ANGER, JEALOUSY
Attraction and aversion are two opposite dosha that combines to create delusion. Delusion is identifying yourself with the mind-body complex and its experiences. This leads to a further immersion in samsara. Delusion gives rise to further attraction and aversion. Objects themselves do not give rise to pleasure and pain. These arise due to the value we give to that object. Objective causes like heat, cold, physical injury are excluded from this. Dosha arises due to an incapability to distinguish between the real and the unreal. Hatred of pain is also hatred and till all such reactions are removed one will remain attached to the illusory world.
Consequence is the outcome of the KRIYA(activity). Every kriya has an outcome, this can take the form of sukha or dukkha. This depends upon the activity done. The same activity can give pleasure or pain to another being or to the actor. Consequences are of two kinds-
CAN BE SEEN IMMEDIATELY
AFTER A LAPSE OF TIME
Dukkha is an impediment that hinders self-actualization.
- The body is impermanent- ANITYA, unstable-ASTHIRAM and is the abode of suffering – DUKHALAYA.
- The sense is the instrument through which we experience suffering. Intellect is the agent of suffering and the self is the subject. Birth is associated with suffering and therefore life is the passing experience of sorrow and suffering.
SAPTADOSHA- According to Vedanta desiccant, all forms of material pleasure and happiness have seven defects. These are
- ALPA- End results are trivial.
- ASTHIRA- Impermanent.
- ASUKARA- Time-consuming effects.
- ASUKHA VASNA- Ultimately we will end in grief and suffering.
- DUKHAN VITA- Accompanied by disappointment.
- ANUCHITAM – Not appropriate from the perspective of the self.
- ABHIMANA MULA- Based on a false identification with the mind-body system.
Birth is the connection of jiva with a new mind-body complex. Therefore both are not a new beginning but simply a form of reassociation. And death is not destruction but separation. To negate this would be to negate the moral law of the universe
Only that atman which is liberated from the body, sense organs, and intellect is freed from dukkha. Right knowledge is developed by
- SELF RESTRAINT OR DISCIPLINE- DAMA
- HOLDING THE MIND STEADFAST AND FOCUS UPON THE ATMAN
- MAINTAIN A SENSE OF TRANQUILITY- SAMA
3.1-SAMSEYA-DOUBT- Doubt is a conflicting judgment about the precise character of an object. 4 reasons doubt can arise-
- Recognition innate of properties common to many objects.
- The recognition of properties not common to any.
- Conflicting testimony.
- Irregularity of perception and non-perception.
- Error is false knowledge. Doubt is incomplete knowledge. Also, doubt gives rise to further investigation. Therefore, it is very powerful and important quality to have. Whenever a doubt arises, it can be clarified using the methodology of Nyaya-(elements 4-16)
4 kinds of doubt-
- PERCEPTION OF COMMON PROPERTY OR FAILURE TO PERCEIVE THE DIFFERENCE.
- CONFLICTING TESTIMONY OF WITNESSES OR NEWS REPORTS
- IRREGULARITY OF PERCEPTION
- IRREGULARITY OF NON PERCEPTION
NYAYA PHILOSOPHY PART-2