Beginning OF LIFE – ABIOGENESIS (GENETICS?)
HOW DOES LIVING BECOME DEAD?
DO DEAD BECOME LIVING?
LIFE AND NON LIFE FOLLOW THE SAME CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Why do WE NEED ELEMENTS(COMPOUND) TO SURVIVE WHEN WE ARE MADE UP OF SAME?
Microorganisms ALL OVER OUR NBODY MICROBIOTA ANF INSIDE OUR BODY AND INSIDE OUR
- Passing BY NATURAL CAUSE-
- On account of DISEASE/INTERNAL ORGAN MALFUNCTION
- Passing BY UN-NAURAL CAUSE-
- Crime/SUICIDE/ACCIDENT/MEDICAL ERRORS/DRUG OVERDOSE
Reflection VS MEDICATION
Microorganism VS IMMUNE SYSTEM
Microorganisms (MICROBIOLOGY)AND PARASITES(PARASITOLOGY)-
Infections ANTIVIRUS/ANTI-VIRAL DRUGS
Ordinarily somewhere in the range of 20 and 300 nanometers long
Infections require a host cell to duplicate
Bacteriophages are infections, otherwise called phages, that taint microscopic organisms regularly prompting the demise of the microbes that were contaminated. Normal bacteriophages incorporate T7 and Lamda phage.https://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/bacteriophage-phage-293/#:~:text=A%20bacteriophage%20is%20a%20type,surrounded%20by%20a%20protein%20structure
Antibodies Vaccines prepare the arrangement of the host, with the goal that when the potential host experiences the infection in the wild, the invulnerable framework can protect against contamination rapidly. Immunizations exist for infections like measles, mumps, and rubella infections, and flu infection. Some infections like HIV, dengue, and chikungunya don’t have antibodies accessible.
Treatment of viral diseases regularly includes treating the indications of the contamination as opposed to giving any prescription that influences the viral microorganism itself. Treating the indications of a viral disease gives the host resistant framework time to foster antibodies against the viral microbe which will then clear the contamination. Sometimes, treatment against the infection is important.
One illustration of this is HIV where antiretroviral treatment, otherwise called ART or HAART, is expected to forestall insusceptible cell misfortune and the movement into AIDS.
Similar to viral microorganisms, disease by certain bacterial microbes can be forestalled by means of vaccines. Vaccines against bacterial microorganisms incorporate the Bacillus anthracis antibody and the pneumococcal immunization. Numerous other bacterial microorganisms need antibodies as a preventive measure, however, disease by these microbes can frequently be dealt with or forestalled with anti-microbials.
Normal anti-microbials incorporate amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline. Every anti-microbial has various microorganisms that it is compelling against and has various instruments to kill those microscopic organisms. For instance, doxycycline represses the amalgamation of new proteins in both gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms which prompts the demise of the influenced microscopic organisms.
Due partially to over-endorsing anti-infection agents in conditions where they are not required, some bacterial microbes have created anti-toxin opposition and are turning out to be difficult to treat with traditional anti-toxins
anti-infection safe bacterial contamination
Pathogenic infections invade have cells and control the organelles inside the cell like the Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus, and Endoplasmic Reticulum to duplicate a huge number of times which ordinarily brings about the passing of the host cell through cell rot. All the infections that were contained inside the lipid bilayer of the phone layer are then delivered into the intercellular grid to taint adjoining cells to proceed with the cycle.
The white platelets are liable for gobbling up the infection utilizing an instrument known as endocytosis inside the extracellular grid to decrease and battle the disease. The parts inside the white platelet are answerable for obliterating the infection and reusing its parts for the body to utilize.
SUB VIRAL AGENTS-
Viroids-made exclusively out of a short strand of round, single-abandoned RNA that has no protein covering.
The reach somewhere in the range of 0.15 and 700 μM long innocuous or helpful to humans(probiotics)
tuberculosis, brought about by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which killed 1.5 million individuals in 2013, generally in sub-Saharan Africa
pneumonia, which can be brought about by microbes like Streptococcus and Pseudomonas, and foodborne sicknesses, which can be brought about by microscopic organisms like Shigella, Campylobacter, and Salmonella.
patients with cystic fibrosis, Pseudomonas microorganisms can frame a biofilm that has high protection from the invulnerable framework and anti-toxins by creating versatile changes and delivering harmfulness factors.
Pathogenic microorganisms additionally cause contaminations like lockjaw, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis, and uncleanliness.
around 300 known parasites that are pathogenic to humans] including Candida albicans, which is the most widely recognized reason for thrush, and Cryptococcus neoformans, which can cause an extreme type of meningitis.
PROTOZOA-ANTI-PROTOZOAL-Protozoans are single-celled eukaryotes that feed on microorganisms and natural tissues. Numerous protozoan microbes are viewed as human parasites as they cause an assortment of infections like jungle fever, amoebiasis, giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, trichomoniasis, Chagas illness, leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis (resting disorder), Acanthamoeba keratitis, and essential amoebic meningoencephalitis (naegleriasis).
Parasitic worms (Helminths) are macroparasites that can be seen easily. Worms live and feed in their living host, getting sustenance and asylum while influencing the host’s method of processing supplements. They additionally control the host’s insusceptible framework by emitting immunomodulatory items which permits them to live in their host for quite a long time. Numerous parasitic worms are all the more ordinarily gastrointestinal that is soil-sent and taint the intestinal system; other parasitic worms are found in the host’s veins. Parasitic worms living in the host can cause shortcomings and even lead to numerous illnesses. Parasitic worms can make numerous infections the two people and creatures. Helminthiasis (worm disease), Ascariasis, and enterobiasis (pinworm contamination) are not many that are brought about by different parasitic worms.
PRION-PRIONS-Prions are misfolded proteins that are contagious and can impact the unusual collapsing of typical proteins in the cerebrum. They don’t contain any DNA or RNA and can’t duplicate other than to change previously existing typical proteins over to the misfolded state. These unusually collapsed proteins are discovered typically in numerous neurodegenerative illnesses as they total the focal sensory system and make plaques that harm the tissue structure. This basically makes “openings” in the tissue. It has been discovered that prions send three different ways: acquired, familial, and inconsistent. It has likewise been discovered that plants assume the part of vector for prions.
NO TREATMENT TO PRIONS YET
There are eight distinct sicknesses that influence warm-blooded animals that are brought about by prions like scrapie, ox-like spongiform encephalopathy (distraught cow illness), and Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE). There are additionally ten sicknesses that influence people, for example, Creutzfeldt–Jakob infection (CJD). what’s more, Fatal familial sleeping disorder (FFI).
Protothecosis is a sickness found in canines, felines, steers, and people brought about by a sort of green alga known as prototheca that needs chlorophyll
NO CONSISTENT TREATMENT
Harmfulness is the inclination of a microorganism to diminish a host’s wellness
TRANSMISSION-Horizontal and vertical
Normal GENETIC TRANSFORMATION
Immunosuppression is a decrease in the enactment or adequacy of the invulnerable framework. A few segments of the invulnerable framework itself effects affect different pieces of the insusceptible framework, and immunosuppression might happen as an antagonistic response to treatment of different conditions
As a rule, purposely prompted immunosuppression is performed to keep the body from dismissing an organ relocate
Organization of immunosuppressive meds or immunosuppressants is the primary technique for intentionally actuating immunosuppression; in ideal conditions, immunosuppressive medications principally target hyperactive parts of the insusceptible system. People going away from malignancy who require immunosuppression are not bound to encounter a recurrence. Throughout its set of experiences, radiation treatment has been utilized to diminish the strength of the invulnerable system.
Immunosuppressive medications can possibly cause immunodeficiency, which can expand weakness to pioneering contamination and lessening malignancy immunosurveillance. Immunosuppressants might be endorsed when an ordinary safe reaction is bothersome, for example, in immune system diseases.
Steroids were the top of the line of immunosuppressant drugs distinguished, however results of early mixtures restricted their utilization. The more specific[vague] azathioprine was recognized in 1960, yet it was the disclosure of ciclosporin in 1980 (along with azathioprine) that permitted the huge extension of transplantation to less all around coordinated with contributor beneficiary matches just an as wide application to lung transplantation, pancreas transplantation, and heart transplantation. After organ transplantation, the body will quickly start to dismiss the new organ(s) because of the difference in human leukocyte antigen between the benefactor and beneficiary. Thus, the safe framework identifies the new tissue as “unfamiliar”, and endeavors to eliminate it by assaulting it with white platelets, bringing about the passing of the gave tissue. Immunosuppressants are directed to assist with forestalling dismissal; be that as it may, the body turns out to be more helpless against contaminations and threats throughout such treatment
The human microbiome is the total of all microbiota that live on or inside human tissues and biofluids alongside the comparing physical destinations in which they reside, including the skin, mammary organs, placenta, fundamental liquid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, salivation, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary plot, and gastrointestinal.