I learned it today – Human evolution timeline

Bc-before christdom

Bce- before Christian era(same as bc)

Ad- Anno domini( after death)

Ce- Christian era(same as Ad)

Mya-million years ago

Bya – Billion years ago

Bp- before present (same as years ago)

C. = circa (approximately)

Million years of Human evolution tree c.

46 Mya- separate evolution line from Lemurs, Lorises and Galagos

37 Mya- separate evolution line from New world monkeys

25 Mya- separate evolution line from Old world monkeys

18 Mya- separate evolution line from Gibbons

8 Mya- separate evolution line from Gorillas

7 Mya- separate evolution line from Chimpanzees (pan troglodytes)

Much closer relatives called hominids ( no longer in existence)c.

7 Mya- Sahelanthropus tchadensis-Africa (centre north)-small canine

6 Mya- Orrorin tugenesis(east Africa)- upwalk walking 

5.8 Mya- Ardipithecus kadabba(east Africa )- bipedal too

4.4 Mya- Ardipithecus ramidus (east Africa)- bipedal tree climber

4.2 Mya- Australopithecus anamensis(east Africa)- lost climbing toes

3.8 Mya- Australopithecus afarensis (east Africa)

3.8 Mya- Australopithecus bahrelgazali(centre North Africa)

3.6 Mya- kenyanthropus platyops (a bit south east Africa)

3.4 Mya- Australopithecus africanus(Southern Africa)

2.8 Mya- Paranthropus aethiopicus(east Africa)

2.5 Mya- Australopithecus Garhi (east Africa Ethiopia )

2.4 Mya- Homo habilis ( east Africa)- first known  stone tools

2.3 Mya- Paranthropus boisei(east Africa)

1.8 Mya- Homo ergaster (South Africa east coast )

1.8 Mya-Homo erectus(out of Africa to Middle East Eurasia)

               -large brain, dexterous fingers, long legs,

               – 800,000 ya -cooking

1.8 Mya-Homo rudolfensis( east Africa)

1.7 Mya – Paranthropus robustus

1.7 Mya – Australopithecus Sediba 

1.2 Mya- Homo antecessor (France Spain uk )

700,000 years ago- Homo heidelbergensis – reaches China and south east Asia 

500,000 years ago- Homo Neanderthalensis (Europe )

400,000 years ago – Homo naledi

200,000 years ago- Homo sapiens( Africa to world)

Indian context ancient c.

4000000-100000 Bce- homo erectus near Narmada valley central, Sloan river hominids and Bhimbetka erectus, madrasian culture in attirapakkam

Bp/years ago

Paleolithic – 2M – 12k (ncert)

Mesolithic – 12k- 10k

Neolithic – 10k

Mehargarh-8k (Collin)

Harappa – 4700 (ncert)

30000 Bce-homo sapiens jwalapuram

9000 bce -Bhimbetka rock shelters

8000- agriculture

7000 bce- cotton cultivation mehargarh

4000-1500- chalcolithic age

4000 bce- starting of Indus Valley civilization

1800 bce- adichanallur burial site

Rig veda – 3500

Megaliths- 3000


Mahajanpada- 2500


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